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Although the Joker was planned to be killed off during his initial appearance, he was spared by editorial intervention, allowing the character to endure as the archenemy of the superhero Batman.
In his comic book appearances, the Joker is portrayed as a criminal mastermind. Introduced as a psychopath with a warped, sadistic sense of humor, the character became a goofy prankster in the late s in response to regulation by the Comics Code Authority , before returning to his darker roots during the early s.
The Joker has had various possible origin stories during his decades of appearances. The most common story involves him falling into a tank of chemical waste which bleaches his skin white and turns his hair green and lips bright red; the resulting disfigurement drives him insane.
The antithesis of Batman in personality and appearance, the Joker is considered by critics to be his perfect adversary. The Joker possesses no superhuman abilities, instead using his expertise in chemical engineering to develop poisonous or lethal concoctions, and thematic weaponry, including razor-tipped playing cards , deadly joy buzzers , and acid-spraying lapel flowers.
The s introduced a romantic interest for the Joker in his former psychiatrist, Harley Quinn , who becomes his villainous sidekick.
Although his primary obsession is Batman, the Joker has also fought other heroes including Superman and Wonder Woman.
One of the most iconic characters in popular culture, the Joker has been listed among the greatest comic book villains and fictional characters ever created.
In a interview in The Amazing World of DC Comics , Robinson said he wanted a supreme arch-villain who could test Batman, but not a typical crime lord or gangster designed to be easily disposed.
He wanted an exotic, enduring character as an ongoing source of conflict for Batman similar to the relationship between Sherlock Holmes and Professor Moriarty , designing a diabolically sinister-but-clownish villain.
He said that the name came first, followed by an image of a playing card from a deck he often had at hand: I wanted somebody that would make an indelible impression, would be bizarre, would be memorable like the Hunchback of Notre Dame or any other villains that had unique physical characters.
Finger thought the concept was incomplete, providing the image of Veidt with a ghastly, permanent rictus grin. Bill Finger and I created the Joker.
Bill was the writer. Jerry Robinson came to me with a playing card of the Joker. He brought in a playing card, which we used for a couple of issues for him [the Joker] to use as his playing card.
That was the first mention of it He can be credited and Bob himself, we all played a role in it. The concept was mine. Bill finished that first script from my outline of the persona and what should happen in the first story.
He wrote the script of that, so he really was co-creator, and Bob and I did the visuals, so Bob was also. I got a call from Bob Kane He had a new villain.
When I arrived he was holding a playing card. Bob made a rough sketch of it. It looked more like a clown.
The volume I had was The Man Who Laughs — his face had been permanently operated on so that he will always have this perpetual grin.
And it looked absolutely weird. I cut the picture out of the book and gave it to Bob, who drew the profile and gave it a more sinister aspect.
Then he worked on the face; made him look a little clown-like, which accounted for his white face, red lips, green hair. And that was the Joker!
The Joker initially appeared as a remorseless serial killer, modeled after a joker playing card with a mirthless grin, who killed his victims with " Joker venom ": Finger wanted the Joker to die because of his concern that recurring villains would make Batman appear inept, but was overruled by then-editor Whitney Ellsworth ; a hastily drawn panel, indicating that the Joker was still alive, was added to the comic.
Around the same time, DC Comics found it easier to market its stories to children without the more mature pulp elements that had originated many superhero comics.
During this period, the first changes in the Joker began to appear, portraying him more as a prankster than threat; when he kidnaps Robin, Batman pays the ransom by check, meaning that the Joker cannot cash it without being arrested.
The cover of Detective Comics 69, known as "Double Guns" with the Joker emerging from a genie lamp, aiming two guns at Batman and Robin , is considered one of the greatest superhero comic covers of the Golden Age and is the only image of the character using traditional guns.
The Joker was one of the few popular villains continuing to appear regularly in Batman comics from the Golden Age into the Silver Age, as the series continued during the rise in popularity of mystery and romance comics.
In , Finger wrote an origin story for the Joker in Detective Comics , which introduced the characteristic of him formerly being the criminal Red Hood , and his disfigurement the result of a fall into a chemical vat.
By , the Comics Code Authority had been established in response to increasing public disapproval of comic book content.
The backlash was inspired by Frederic Wertham , who hypothesized that mass media especially comic books was responsible for the rise in juvenile delinquency , violence and homosexuality, particularly in young males.
Parents forbade their children from reading comic books, and there were several mass burnings. The character appeared less frequently after , when Julius Schwartz who disliked the Joker became editor of the Batman comics.
I went to the DC library and read some of the early stories. I tried to get a sense of what Kane and Finger were after. DC Comics was a hotbed of experimentation during the s, and in the character became the first villain to feature as the title character in a comic book series, The Joker.
The series never found an audience, and The Joker was cancelled after nine issues despite a "next issue" advertisement for an appearance by the Justice League.
In , DC Comics reissued the series as a graphic novel. In "The Laughing Fish", the Joker disfigures fish with a rictus grin resembling his own expecting copyright protection , and is unable to understand that copyrighting a natural resource is legally impossible.
I really wanted to get back to the idea of Batman fighting insane murderers at 3 a. Years after the end of the television series, sales of Batman continued to fall and the title was nearly canceled.
Although the s restored the Joker as an insane, lethal foe of Batman, it was during the s that the Batman series started to turn around and the Joker came into his own as part of the "dark age" of comics: The shift was derided for moving away from tamer superheroes and villains , but comic audiences were no longer primarily children.
Todd was unpopular with fans; rather than modify his character, DC opted to let them vote for his fate and a vote plurality had the Joker beat Todd to death with a crowbar.
This story altered the Batman universe: A Serious House on Serious Earth explores the psychoses of Batman, the Joker and other rogues in the eponymous facility.
Harley Quinn , a psychiatrist who falls for—and ends up in an abusive relationship with—the Joker, becoming his supervillain accomplice.
However, the Anarky series was cancelled before the rebuttal could be published. The story arc explores the symbiotic relationship between Joker and Batman, and sees the villain shatter the trust between Batman and his adopted family.
The Joker has undergone many revisions since his debut. The most common interpretation of the character is that he is disguised as the criminal Red Hood, and pursued by Batman.
The Joker falls into a vat of chemicals which bleaches his skin, colors his hair green and his lips red, and drives him insane.
The reasons why the Joker was disguised as the Red Hood, and his identity before his transformation have changed over time. Although the police protect Claridge, the Joker had poisoned him before making his announcement and Claridge dies with a ghastly grin on his face; Batman eventually defeats him, sending him to prison.
His resulting disfigurement led him to adopt the name "Joker", from the playing card figure he came to resemble. Although the Joker refuses, he shows his appreciation by sharing a joke with Batman.
In the story "A Death in the Family", the Joker beats Jason Todd with a crowbar and leaves him to die in an explosion. However, when he tries to poison the UN membership, he is defeated by Batman and Superman.
When the supervillain then tries to destroy the universe, his reluctance to eliminate Batman makes him lose control, and Superman defeats him.
Instead, the Joker flanked by an army of "Jokerized" supervillains launches a final crime spree. Believing that Robin Tim Drake has been killed in the chaos, Dick Grayson beats the Joker to death although Batman revives his foe to keep Grayson from being a murderer , and the villain succeeds in making a member of the Bat-family break their rule against killing.
In " Under the Hood " , a resurrected Todd tries to force Batman to avenge his death by killing the Joker. Batman refuses, arguing that if he allows himself to kill the Joker, he will not be able to stop killing other criminals.
The supervillain returns in "The Clown at Midnight" as a cruel, enigmatic force who awakens and tries to kill Harley Quinn to prove to Batman that he has become more than human.
When the Joker escapes, he attacks the Black Glove, burying its leader Simon Hurt alive after the supervillain considers him a failure as an opponent; the Joker is then defeated by the recently returned Batman.
Though a number of backstories have been given, a definitive one has not yet been established for the Joker. An unreliable narrator , the character is uncertain of who he was before and how he became the Joker: Here, the character is a laboratory worker who becomes the Red Hood a masked criminal to steal a million dollars from his employer and retire.
He falls into a vat of chemical waste when his heist is thwarted by Batman, emerging with bleached white skin, red lips, green hair and a permanent grin.
Unsuccessful, he agrees to help mobsters with a robbery and dons the Red Hood. The heist goes awry; the comedian leaps into a chemical vat to escape Batman, surfacing disfigured.
This, combined with the earlier accidental death of his wife and unborn child, drives the comedian insane and he becomes the Joker.
He has his fateful first meeting with Batman, which results in his disfigurement. It is suggested that the Joker is sane, and feigns insanity to avoid the death penalty.
In Batman Confidential 7—12 , the character, Jack, is a talented criminal who is bored with his work. He encounters and becomes obsessed with Batman during a heist, embarking on a crime spree to attract his attention.
Jack escapes, but falls into an empty vat as gunfire punctures chemical tanks above him. The flood of chemicals used in anti-psychotic medication alters his appearance and completes his transformation.
The Joker has claimed a number of origins, including being the child of an abusive father who broke his nose and the long-lived jester of an Egyptian pharaoh.
As Batman says, "Like any other comedian, he uses whatever material will work". The original, dominant image is that of an extreme psychopath ,  with genius-level intelligence and a warped, sadistic sense of humor.
This appearance is such a fundamental aspect of the character that when the animated series The Batman placed the Joker in a straitjacket, it quickly redesigned him in his familiar suit.
The Joker is obsessed with Batman, the pair representing a yin-yang of opposing dark and light force; although it is the Joker who represents humor and color and Batman who dwells in the dark.
Spectacle is more important than success for the Joker, and if it is not spectacular it is boring. Despite this body count, he is always found not guilty by reason of insanity and sent to Arkham Asylum, avoiding the death penalty.
The villain displays no instinct for self-preservation, and is willing to die to prove his point. Like a psychopath, he lacks empathy, a conscience, and concern over right and wrong.
In A Serious House on Serious Earth , the Joker is described as capable of processing outside sensory information only by adapting to it.
This enables him to create a new personality every day depending on what would benefit him and explains why, at different times, he is a mischievous clown or a psychopathic killer.
The Killing Joke in which the Joker is the unreliable narrator explains the roots of his insanity as "one bad day": He tries and fails to prove that anyone can become like him after one bad day by torturing Commissioner Gordon, physically and psychologically.
The Joker is alternatively depicted as sexual and asexual. A Serious House on Serious Earth , the Joker is seductive toward Batman; it is uncertain if their relationship has homoerotic undertones or if the Joker is simply trying to manipulate his nemesis.
Frank Miller interpreted the character as fixated on death and uninterested in sexual relationships, while Robinson believes that the Joker is capable of a romantic relationship.
Harley loves him but the Joker does not reciprocate her feelings, chiding her for distracting him from other plans.
The Joker believes that Batman has not killed him because he makes Batman better, and he loves the villain for that.
The Joker is often depicted as defining his existence through his conflict with Batman. The Joker is portrayed as having no fear; when fellow supervillain Scarecrow doses him with fear toxin in Knightfall , the Joker merely laughs and says, "Boo!
At these moments, the Joker is depicted as expressing remorse for his acts;   however, during a medically induced period of partial sanity in Batman: Cacophony he tells his opponent: The Joker has no inherent superhuman abilities.
The flower in his lapel sprays acid, and his hand often holds a lethal joy buzzer conducting a million volts of electricity, although both items were introduced in as harmless joke items.
Joker venom , a liquid or gaseous toxin which sends its targets into fits of uncontrollable laughter; higher doses can lead to paralysis, coma or death, leaving its victim with a ghoulish, pained rictus grin.
The Joker has used venom since his debut; only he knows the formula, and is shown to be gifted enough to manufacture the toxin from ordinary household chemicals.
The Joker is portrayed as skilled in melee combat, from his initial appearances when he defeats Batman in a sword fight nearly killing him , and others when he overwhelms Batman but declines to kill him.
Despite his tendency to kill subordinates on a whim, the Joker has no difficulty attracting henchmen with a seemingly infinite cash supply and intimidation: Although Quinn loves the Joker, he is obsessed with Batman and uses her to achieve his goals at her expense.
Despite violent abuse, she returns to him. The story is notable for the Joker taking on a relative god and the ease with which Superman defeats him—it took only 17 pages.
Asked why he came to Metropolis, the Joker replies simply: A Serious Study of the Clown Prince of Crime" became the first academic book to be published about a supervillain.
Since the Bronze Age of Comics, the Joker has been interpreted as an archetypal trickster , displaying talents for cunning intelligence, social engineering, pranks, theatricality, and idiomatic humor.
Like the trickster, the Joker alternates between malicious violence and clever, harmless whimsy. The trickster is simultaneously subhuman and superhuman, a being that indicates a lack of unity in body and mind.
However, while Harley recovers, the Joker sends her flowers which she accepts, reasserting his control over her.
Harley Quinn , the Joker decides to kill Harley, after admitting that he does care for her, that their relationship is romantic, and that these feelings prevent him from fulfilling his purpose.
Thrillkiller storyline where the Joker Bianca Steeplechase is a female and involved in a lesbian relationship with Harley, their relationship lacks any aspects of violence or subjugation.
The Joker has appeared in a variety of media, including television series, animated and live-action films. WorldCat a catalog of libraries in countries records over productions featuring the Joker as a subject, including films, books, and video games,  and Batman films featuring the character are typically the most successful.
Galactic Guardians , voiced by Frank Welker. Voiced by Mark Hamill , the Joker retained the darker tone of the comics in stories acceptable for young children.
The Joker has also been featured in video games. Arkham Asylum , its equally praised sequel Batman: Assault on Arkham ,     while Hamill returned for the series finale, Batman: The Videogame , Lego Batman 2: Beyond Gotham the latter three voiced by Christopher Corey Smith.
The Telltale Series  and Batman: The Enemy Within From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from Joker comics.
For other characters or uses of The Joker, see Joker. Injustice Gang Injustice League. I never intended to give a reason for his appearance.
We discussed that and Bill [Finger] and I never wanted to change it at that time. I thought—and he agreed—that it takes away some of the essential mystery.
Alternative versions of Joker. List of Batman Family adversaries. Joker in other media. Archived from the original on August 9, Retrieved August 9, The Joker, Part I".
Archived from the original on February 23, Retrieved February 23, Jerry Robinson, creator of the Joker". Archived from the original on October 14, Retrieved October 12, Archived from the original on November 4, Archived from the original on December 11, Retrieved December 9, Archived from the original on December 27, Retrieved December 26, Archived from the original on October 18, Retrieved October 18, Archived from the original on February 26, Archived from the original on October 15, Retrieved February 20, Archived from the original on February 4, Retrieved August 28, The Ongoing Adventures of Rocket Llama.
Archived from the original on July 23, Retrieved August 1, Page 8 archived and Page 9 archived from the originals on August 17, Birth of a Supervillain".
The New York Times. Archived from the original on November 13, Torn Between Goof And Evil". Archived from the original on April 8, Archived from the original on October 16, Archived from the original on October 23, Archived from the original on August 10, Retrieved August 10, Archived from the original on October 21, Archived from the original on October 20, Retrieved October 19, Archived from the original on January 25, Retrieved January 25, I feel like going to Timbuctoo for the weekend — but, joking apart, I do need a rest!
References in classic literature? Those who had been greedy with the staves of the cask, had acquired a tigerish smear about the mouth; and one tall joker so besmirched, his head more out of a long squalid bag of a nightcap than in it, scrawled upon a wall with his finger dipped in muddy wine-lees--BLOOD.
Joker , one of our clowns," continued the china lady, "who is always trying to stand upon his head. Well, monsieur, my Menneville spitted the joker , to the great astonishment of the spectators, and said to the cook: Whether people grow fat by joking, or whether there is something in fat itself which predisposes to a joke, I have never been quite able to determine; but certain it is that a lean joker is a rara avis in terris.
The joker spent the remainder of the night, after church, in the cellar of a deserted house, and Nicodemus sat on the cellar door till toward breakfast-time to make sure that the prisoner remembered that if any noise was made, some rough treatment would be the consequence.
And as for small difficulties and worryings, prospects of sudden disaster, peril of life and limb; all these, and death itself, seem to him only sly, good-natured hits, and jolly punches in the side bestowed by the unseen and unaccountable old joker.
It means, my dear friend," explained the Woggle-Bug, "that our language contains many words having a double meaning; and that to pronounce a joke that allows both meanings of a certain word, proves the joker a person of culture and refinement, who has, moreover, a thorough command of the language.
He had always been a joker , the only joker in the grim and terrible company; but now as he lay there half dead from his hurts, he almost swore a solemn oath forever to forego practical joking--almost; but not quite.
The last of them proved to be their commander, the identical giant joker already mentioned. Love was the king card of trumps, the fifth ace, the joker in a game of tenderfoot poker.