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After a two-year siege, the fort fell to bin Sultan in Thereafter the Omanis easily ejected the Portuguese from Zanzibar and from all other coastal regions north of Mozambique.
The Persians invaded Oman in They were driven out in when the Al Said dynasty came to power. It continues to rule Oman to this day. Rivalry between his two sons was resolved, with the help of forceful British diplomacy, when one of them, Majid , succeeded to Zanzibar and to the many regions claimed by the family on the Swahili Coast.
The other son, Thuwaini , inherited Muscat and Oman. Zanzibar influences in the Comoros archipelago in the Indian Ocean indirectly introduced Omani customs to the Comorian culture.
These influences include clothing traditions and wedding ceremonies. This coastal city is located in the Makran region of what is now the far southwestern corner of Pakistan , near the present-day border of Iran , at the mouth of the Gulf of Oman.
The Al Hajar Mountains , of which the Jebel Akhdar is a part, separate the country into two distinct regions: The interior was ruled by Ibadite imams and the coastal areas by the sultan.
Under the terms of the British-brokered Treaty of Seeb of , the sultan recognised the autonomy of the interior. The Sultan of Muscat would be responsible for the external affairs of Oman.
The rule of Sultan Said bin Taimur was characterised by a feudal and isolationist approach. A subsidiary of the Iraq Petroleum Company was intensely interested in some promising geological formations near Fahud.
Under the terms of the treaty of Seeb, the Sultan claimed all dealings with the oil company as his prerogative. The Imam, on the other hand, claimed that since the oil was in his territory, anything dealing with it was an internal matter.
In , the exclave coastal Makran strip acceded to Pakistan and was made a district of its Balochistan province , while Gwadar was not included in Makran then.
Oil reserves were discovered in and extraction began in In the Dhofar Rebellion , which began in , leftist forces were pitted against government troops.
After deposing his father in , Sultan Qaboos opened up the country, embarked on economic reforms, and followed a policy of modernisation marked by increased spending on health, education and welfare.
In Oman became a founding member of the six-nation Gulf Cooperation Council. Political reforms were eventually introduced. Historically, voters had been chosen from among tribal leaders, intellectuals, and businessmen.
In Sultan Qaboos decreed that women could vote for, and stand for election to, the Majlis al-Shura, the Consultative Assembly of Oman.
Two women were duly elected to the body. In , voting rights were extended to all citizens over the age of 21, and the first elections to the Consultative Assembly under the new rules were held in The Sultan continued to rule by decree.
Nearly suspected Islamists were arrested in and 31 people were convicted of trying to overthrow the government. They were ultimately pardoned in June of the same year.
Inspired by the Arab Spring uprisings taking place throughout the region, protests occurred in Oman during the early months of Although they did not call for the ousting of the regime, demonstrators demanded political reforms, improved living conditions, and the creation of more jobs.
They were dispersed by riot police in February Sultan Qaboos reacted by promising jobs and benefits. In October , elections were held to the Consultative Assembly, to which Sultan Qaboos promised greater powers.
The following year, the government began a crackdown on internet criticism. During past epochs, Oman was covered by ocean, witnessed by the large numbers of fossilized shells existing in areas of the desert away from the modern coastline.
The peninsula of Musandam Musandem exclave , which has a strategic location on the Strait of Hormuz , is separated from the rest of Oman by the United Arab Emirates.
In the south, the Dhofar Mountains area near Salalah has a tropical-like climate and receives seasonal rainfall from late June to late September as a result of monsoon winds from the Indian Ocean, leaving the summer air saturated with cool moisture and heavy fog.
On June 26, the city of Qurayyat, Oman set the record for highest minimum temperature in a hour period, Desert shrub and desert grass, common to southern Arabia, are found in Oman, but vegetation is sparse in the interior plateau, which is largely gravel desert.
The greater monsoon rainfall in Dhofar and the mountains makes the growth there more luxuriant during summer; coconut palms grow plentifully in the coastal plains of Dhofar and frankincense is produced in the hills, with abundant oleander and varieties of acacia.
The Al Hajar Mountains are a distinct ecoregion , the highest points in eastern Arabia with wildlife including the Arabian tahr.
Indigenous mammals include the leopard , hyena , fox, wolf , hare, oryx, and ibex. Birds include the vulture, eagle, stork, bustard, Arabian partridge, bee eater, falcon, and sunbird.
In , Oman had nine endangered species of mammals, five endangered types of birds, [ citation needed ] and nineteen threatened plant species.
Decrees have been passed to protect endangered species, including the Arabian leopard , Arabian oryx , mountain gazelle , goitered gazelle , Arabian tahr , green sea turtle , hawksbill turtle , and olive ridley turtle.
In recent years, Oman has become one of newer hot spots for whale watching , highlighting the critically endangered Arabian humpback whale , the most isolated and only non- migratory population in the world, sperm whales , and pygmy blue whales.
Drinking water is available throughout Oman, either piped or delivered. The soil in coastal plains, such as Salalah, have shown increased levels of salinity, due to over exploitation of ground water and encroachment by seawater on the water table.
Pollution of beaches and other coastal areas by oil tanker traffic through the Strait of Hormuz and Gulf of Oman is also a persistent concern.
Local and national entities have noted unethical treatment of animals in Oman. In particular, stray dogs and to a lesser extent, stray cats are often the victims of torture, abuse or neglect.
The Oman government has refused to implement a spay and neuter program or create any animal shelters in the country. Cats, while seen as more acceptable than dogs, are viewed as pests and frequently die of starvation or illness.
Oman is a unitary state and an absolute monarchy ,  in which all legislative, executive and judiciary power ultimately rests in the hands of the hereditary Sultan.
Freedom House has routinely rated the country "Not Free" as it is an absolute monarchy. Sultan Qaboos is the head of state and also directly controls the foreign affairs and defence portfolios.
The judiciary branch is subordinate to the Sultan. Sharia court departments within the civil court system are responsible for family-law matters, such as divorce and inheritance.
The country has no system of checks and balances, and thus no separation of powers. The administration of justice is highly personalized, with limited due process protections, especially in political and security-related cases.
The Basic Statute was issued in and thus far has only been amended once, in ,  in response to protests. There have been numerous testimonies of torture and other inhumane forms of punishment perpetrated by security forces on protesters and detainees.
Oman is an absolute monarchy by male primogeniture. The present Sultan, Qaboos bin Said al Said , has been the hereditary leader of the country since Homosexual acts are illegal in Oman.
The Omani government decides who can or cannot be a journalist and this permission can be withdrawn at any time. The law prohibits criticism of the Sultan and government in any form or medium.
Merely mentioning the existence of such restrictions can land Omanis in trouble. Faced with so many restrictions, Omanis have resorted to unconventional methods for expressing their views.
There is no way in which police can maintain dignity in seizing and destroying a donkey on whose flank a political message has been inscribed.
Omani citizens need government permission to marry foreigners. The National Human Rights Commission, established in , is not independent from the regime.
In January , Omani intelligence agents arrested a Bahraini actor and handed him over to the Bahraini authorities on the same day of his arrest.
The plight of domestic workers in Oman is a taboo subject. Since , Oman has pursued a moderate foreign policy, and has expanded its diplomatic relations dramatically.
Oman is among the very few Arab countries that have maintained friendly ties with Iran. The Royal Household maintained 5, Guards, 1, in Special Forces, sailors in the Royal Yacht fleet, and pilots and ground personnel in the Royal Flight squadrons.
Oman also maintains a modestly sized paramilitary force of 4, men. The Royal Army of Oman had 25, active personnel in , plus a small contingent of Royal Household troops.
Despite a comparative large military spending, it has been relatively slow to modernize its forces. Oman has a relatively limited number of tanks, including 6 M60A1 , 73 M60A3 , and 38 Challenger 2 main battle tanks, as well as 37 aging Scorpion light tanks.
The Royal Air Force of Oman has approximately 4, men, with only 36 combat aircraft and no armed helicopters. Combat aircraft include 20 aging Jaguars , 12 Hawk Mk s, 4 Hawk Mk s, and 12 PC-9 turboprop trainers with a limited combat capability.
The Royal Navy of Oman had 4, men in , and is headquartered at Seeb. In , Oman had 10 surface combat vessels. These included two 1,ton Qahir class corvettes , and 8 ocean-going patrol boats.
Oman also had at least four landing craft. They are being built at Portsmouth. The Sultanate is administratively divided into eleven governorates.
Governorates are, in turn, divided into 60 wilayats. Tourism is the fastest-growing industry in Oman. Since a slump in oil prices in , Oman has made active plans to diversify its economy and is placing a greater emphasis on other areas of industry, namely tourism and infrastructure.
A free-trade agreement with the United States took effect 1 January , eliminated tariff barriers on all consumer and industrial products, and also provided strong protections for foreign businesses investing in Oman.
During this latter event the mountains surrounding Salalah are popular with tourists as a result of the cool weather and lush greenery, rarely found anywhere else in Oman.
Salaries for overseas workers are known to be less than for Omani nationals, though still from two to five times higher than for the equivalent job in India.
The Oman Ferries Company maintains the two diesel-powered, high-speed, car ferries — Shinas and Hormouz. The ferries are used for travel between Muscat and Khasab.
Khasab is strategically located in Musandam on the southern tip of the Strait of Hormuz and is controlled by Oman. Tourism in Oman has grown considerably recently, and it is expected to be one of the largest industries in the country.
Oman has one of the most diverse environments in the Middle East with various tourist attractions and is particularly well known for adventure and cultural tourism.
Nearly 50 percent of the population lives in Muscat and the Batinah coastal plain northwest of the capital. Omani people are predominantly of Arab , Baluchi and African origins.
Omani society is largely tribal    and encompasses three major identities: Religion in Oman . Islam official; majority are Ibadi and less Sunni and Shia Virtually all non-Muslims in Oman are foreign workers.
Christian communities are centred in the major urban areas of Muscat , Sohar , and Salalah. These include Catholic , Eastern Orthodox , and various Protestant congregations, organizing along linguistic and ethnic lines.
More than 50 different Christian groups, fellowships, and assemblies are active in the Muscat metropolitan area, formed by migrant workers from Southeast Asia.
There are also communities of ethnic Indian Hindus and Christians. Muscat has two Hindu temples. One of them is over a hundred years old.
There is a significant Sikh community in Oman. Though there are no permanent gurdwaras , many smaller gurdwaras in makeshift camps exist and are recognised by the government.
The Government of India had signed an accord in with the Omani government to build a permanent gurdwara but little progress has been made on the matter.
Arabic is the official language of Oman. It belongs to the Semitic branch of the Afroasiatic family. But until the 18th or 19th century it was spoken further north, perhaps into Central Oman.
Oman was also the first Arab country in the Persian Gulf to have German taught as a second language. Omani dialects preserve much vocabulary which has been lost in other Arabic dialects.
Holes has argued convincingly that Omani Arabic has indigenous characteristics of its own which do not derive from Bedouin central Arabia.
They are better preserved than in neighbouring countries. Almost all signs and writings appear in both Arabic and English at tourist sites.
It is also used by some descendants of Sindhi sailors. Additionally, Swahili is widely spoken in the country due to the historical relations between Oman and Zanzibar.
Outwardly, Oman shares many of the cultural characteristics of its Arab neighbours, particularly those in the Gulf Cooperation Council.
Sur was one of the most famous shipbuilding cities of the Indian Ocean. The Al Ghanja ship takes one whole year to build. The wreck was initially discovered in Later underwater excavations took place between and through a partnership between the Oman Ministry of Heritage and Culture and Blue Water Recoveries Ltd.
The male national dress in Oman consists of the dishdasha , a simple, ankle-length, collarless gown with long sleeves.
Its main adornment, a tassel furakha sewn into the neckline, can be impregnated with perfume. The most noted regional differences in dishdasha designs are the style with which they are embroidered, which varies according to age group.
The embroidery edging the cloak is often in silver or gold thread and it is intricate in detail. Some men carry the assa , a stick, which can have practical uses or is simply used as an accessory during formal events.
Omani men, on the whole, wear sandals on their feet. The khanjar dagger forms part of the national dress and men wear the khanjar on all formal public occasions and festivals.
Sheaths may vary from simple covers to ornate silver or gold-decorated pieces. A depiction of a khanjar appears on the national flag. Omani women wear eye-catching national costumes, with distinctive regional variations.
All costumes incorporate vivid colours and vibrant embroidery and decorations. The dishdasha is worn over a pair of loose fitting trousers, tight at the ankles, known as a sirwal.
Women also wear a head shawl most commonly referred to as the lihaf. As of [update] women reserve wearing their traditional dress for special occasions, and instead wear a loose black cloak called an abaya over their personal choice of clothing, whilst in some regions, particularly amongst the Bedouin, the burqa is still worn.
The Sultan has forbidden the covering of faces in public office. There are over different forms of traditional Omani songs and dances.
The Oman Centre for Traditional Music was established in to preserve them. Instead of engaging foreign musicians, he decided to establish an orchestra made up of Omanis.
The cinema of Oman is very small, there being only one Omani film Al-Boom as of [update]. It belongs to the Jawad Sultan Group of Companies, which has a history spanning more than 40 years in the Sultanate of Oman.
The government has continuously held a monopoly on television in Oman. Oman TV is the only state-owned national television channel broadcaster in Oman.
It began broadcasting for the first time from Muscat on 17 November and separately from Salalah on 25 November On 1 June , the two stations at Muscat and Salalah linked by satellite to form a unified broadcasting service.
Although private ownership of radio and television stations is permitted, Oman has only one privately owned television channel.
It began broadcasting on January, Oman Radio is the first and only state-owned radio channel. In early , Muscat Media Group MMG , trend-setting media group founded by late Essa bin Mohammed Al Zedjali, launched a new private radio stations in hopes of catering educative and entertaining programs to the youth of the Sultanate.
Oman has nine main newspapers, five in Arabic and four in English. The media landscape in Oman has been continuously described as restrictive, censored, and subdued.
Azamn was not allowed to reopen in although an appeal court ruled in late that the paper can resume operating. Traditional art in Oman stems from its long heritage of material culture.
Art movements in the 20th century reveal that the art scene in Oman began with early practices that included a range of tribal handicrafts and self-portraiture in painting since the s.
Bait Muzna Gallery is the first art gallery in Oman. Established in by Sayyida Susan Al Said, Bait Muzna has served as a platform for emerging Omani artists to showcase their talent and place themselves on the wider art scene.
In , Bait Muzna opened a second space in Salalah to branch out and support art film and the digital art scene. The gallery has been primarily active as an art consultancy.
It showcases national heritage from the earliest human settlement in Oman two million years ago through to the present day.
The museum takes a further step by presenting information on the material in Arabic Braille script for the visually impaired, the first museum to do this in the Gulf region.
The Omani Society for Fine Arts , established in , offers educational programs, workshops and artist grants for practitioners across varied disciplines.
In , the organization opened its first exhibition on graphic design. The organization has additional branches in Sohar , Buraimi and Salalah.
Bait Al- Zubair Museum is a private, family-funded museum that opened its doors to the public in Located within Bait Al-Zubair, Gallery Sarah, which opened in October , offers an array of paintings and photographs by established local and international artists.
The gallery also occasionally holds lectures and workshops. Omani cuisine is diverse and has been influenced by many cultures.
Omanis usually eat their main daily meal at midday, while the evening meal is lighter. However, these dinner timings differ according to each family; for instance, some families would choose to eat right after maghrib prayers and have dessert after taraweeh.
Arsia, a festival meal served during celebrations, consists of mashed rice and meat sometimes chicken. Another popular festival meal, shuwa, consists of meat cooked very slowly sometimes for up to 2 days in an underground clay oven.
The meat becomes extremely tender and it is infused with spices and herbs before cooking to give it a very distinct taste.
Fish is often used in main dishes too, and the kingfish is a popular ingredient. Mashuai is a meal consisting of a whole spit-roasted kingfish served with lemon rice.
Rukhal bread is a thin, round bread originally baked over a fire made from palm leaves. It is eaten at any meal, typically served with Omani honey for breakfast or crumbled over curry for dinner.
Chicken, fish, and lamb or mutton are regularly used in dishes. The Omani halwa is a very popular sweet, basically consisting of cooked raw sugar with nuts.
There are many different flavors, the most popular ones being black halwa original and saffron halwa. Halwa is considered as a symbol of Omani hospitality, and is traditionally served with coffee.
As is the case with most Arab states of the Persian Gulf , alcohol is only available over-the-counter to non-Muslims.
Muslims can still purchase alcoholic drinks. Alcohol is served in many hotels and a few restaurants. In October , the Omani government set up a Ministry of Sports Affairs to replace the General Organization for youth, sports and cultural affairs.
The 19th Arabian Gulf Cup , the 19th edition, took place in Muscat , from 4 to 17 January and was won by the Omani national football team.
The 23rd Arabian Gulf Cup , the 23rd edition, that took place in Kuwait , from 22 December until January 5, Oman won their second title, defeating the United Arab Emirates in the final on penalties following a goalless draw.
Ali Al-Habsi is an Omani professional association football player. Thundery showers and a gentle breeze. Sunny intervals and a gentle breeze. Light rain showers and a moderate breeze.
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